At 5 A.M. the following morning Andrews and 19 of his volunteers boarded the passenger cars behind the steam engine General. (For whatever reason two of the volunteers failed to meet their train.) It was April 12th, one year to the day after the opening shots of the Civil War had been fired at Fort Sumter.
A short time after the train left Marietta it pulled into the small stop at Big Shanty where the passengers and crew dismounted for breakfast at the Lacey Hotel. Andrews and his 19 men stayed aboard, prepared to make their move. There was no telegraph office at the stop in Big Shanty to broadcast news of what the raiders were about to do, the very reason Andrews had selected this site to begin his operation.
When the passengers and crew were out of sight Andrews and his men calmly but quickly separated the General, its coal tender and three box cars from the rest of the train, all without arousing the suspicion of the soldiers at nearby Camp McDonald. It was a simple but audacious act. Their work done, sixteen of the commandos boarded the three box cars. Andrews entered the engine with Privates Wilson Brown and William Knight, both engineers in their own right. The final soldier assumed the role of fireman and the legitimate crew of the General looked up from their breakfast to the startling sight of the General leaving Big Shanty without them.
The courage of Andrews and his men this day would, however, be challenged by the courage of their enemy as well. The General's engineer Jeff Cain was joined by two of his crew Anthony Murphy and William Fuller in a desperate effort to recover their train. The three ran after the train on foot, pursuing it for two miles to Moon's Station where they found a hand-propelled cart to continue their pursuit.
Over the first twenty miles of their journey north from Big Shanty, Andrews and his men took time to pull up rail behind them and drop timbers across the tracks to discourage any possible pursuit, as well as cutting telegraph lines that might have sent news of their desperate mission ahead to waiting Confederate troops. As they passed the Etowah River however, they made a fatal mistake, ignoring the presence of the old steam engine Yonah as they continued on towards Kingston. Cain and his crew didn't overlook this more appropriate pursuit vehicle, and quickly traded their hand car for the aging mechanical one.
At Kingston the raiders had faced a frustrating delay caused by other train traffic. Confident that the cut telegraph lines had prevented news of their raid from reaching Kingston they patiently but nervously paced the siding as the flow of south-bound trains held them in place. They were still not aware that Cain was pursuing them and gaining mileage with each minute of delay. Finally, after more than an hour, Andrews and his men continued their journey north, just as Cain was arriving at the rail yard. The two groups were only ten minutes apart.
At Kingston Cain, Fuller and Murphy traded the aging Yonah for the William R. Smith to continue their pursuit. Four miles north of Kingston however, they had to abandon the William R. Smith when they encountered track that had been taken up by Andrews' Raiders shortly after they had departed the city. Refusing to give up, Murphy and Fuller ran on foot the 3 miles to Adairsville where they encountered a southbound train pulled by The Texas. Releasing the cars, the two continued their pursuit, The Texas running in reverse but gaining on the raiders.
Two miles north of Calhoon Andrews halted the trek of the General long enough to again attempt to damage the track to foil any possible pursuit. As the dismounted raiders were going about their work they became aware for the first time that the pursuit was real. Quickly the men reboarded and Brown and Knight opened the General's throttle to the maximum. Still running backwards The Texas continued, also running at full steam in what would ever after become known as the GREAT LOCOMOTIVE CHASE.
Through the towns of Resaca and then Dalton the two engines raced. The raiders dropped timbers behind them but they failed to slow The Texas. In desperation the raiders cut loose two of the three box cars, but even these failed to halt the determined pursuit. Just south of the covered bridge over the Oostanaula River the 21 raiders crowded onto the General and its coal tender and set fire to and released the remaining box car in an attempt to burn the wooden bridge. Still soggy from the rains that had earlier delayed the raiders initial journey into Georgia, the bridge refused to ignite and the chase continued.
As it became increasingly more obvious that The General would not make Chatanooga the raiders began to jump one by one from the train and race for the shelter of the woods. Then, two miles north of Ringgold and just five miles from Tennessee, The General gasped its last puff of steam and the remaining raiders ran in desperation to avoid capture. The Great Locomotive Chase was over and the flight for life had begun.
Within a week Andrews and all 21 raiders, including the two who had failed to board the train for its 87 mile race into history, were captured. In Atlanta James Andrews was tried and convicted as a spy. On June 7th he was hanged. Eleven days later on June 18th seven more raiders including the civilian William Campbell and his friend Private Shadrach and two of the three NCOs were also hanged as spies. The remaining 14 young soldiers were placed in prison camps to await what they assumed would be a similar fate. Bold, courageous and with nothing to loose they engineered a daring escape four months later in which eight of them reached safety. The other six were recaptured and brutally punished.
It was these six young men, recently released in exchange for Confederate prisoners, who now stood before the Secretary of War to recount the tale of their ordeal.
The Secretary was moved by the story. Then a thought crossed his mind and he stepped briefly into an adjoining room at the War Department, returning momentarily with something in his hand. "Congress," he told the young men, "has by recent law ordered medals to be prepared on this model. Your party shall have the first; they will be the first that have been given to private soldiers in this war." Then he stepped before the youngest of the group, Private Jacob Parrott and presented the FIRST Medal of Honor ever awarded. When he had followed suit with the remaining five he walked them to the White House to meet the President, setting the stage for a tradition that would dominate similar presentations beginning some half century later.
The following September, 9 more of the raiders were presented Medals of Honor for their participation in the raid.
Jamed (Ovid) Smith
Eventually 19 of the 24 men including four of those hanged as spies were awarded Medals of Honor.
These four heroes are remembered as they rest in honor at the National Cemetery in Chattanooga, Tennessee. They are buried in a semi-circle behind this monument.
(Doug Sterner visiting the memorial with Desmond Doss, MOH)
As civilians neither James J. Andrews or William Campbell were eligible for the award.
Below are the names of the 19....Private Philip Schadrach not among them.
Private Schadrach had served, been tried and hanged...under an assumed name.
(Click on any of their names to read their citation)
Unit Date of Award 1 Co K, 33d Ohio Infantry March 25, 1863 2 Co G, 21st Ohio Infantry March 25, 1863 3 Co H, 21st Ohio Infantry March 25, 1863 4 Co K, 21st Ohio Infantry March 25, 1863 5 Co G, 2d Ohio Infantry March 25, 1863 6 Co B, 33d Ohio Infantry March 25, 1863 Cpl Daniel Allen Dorsey Co H, 33d Ohio Infantry September 17, 1863 **SgtMaj Marion A. Ross 2d Ohio Infantry September, 1863 Pvt Mark Wood Co C, 21st Ohio Infantry September, 1863 Pvt John Reed Porter Co G, 21st Ohio Infantry September, 1863 Pvt Wilson W. Brown Co F, 21st Ohio Infantry September, 1863 Pvt William J. Knight Co E, 21st Ohio Infantry September, 1863 Pvt John Alfred Wilson Co C, 21st Ohio Infantry September, 1863 Co G, 33d Ohio Infantry September, 1863 Co A, 33d Ohio Infantry September, 1863 Co I, 2d Ohio Infantry July 6, 1864 Co C, 33d Ohio Infantry July 20, 1864 Co F, 21st Ohio Infantry August 4, 1866 Co E, 33d Ohio Infantry July 28, 1883
- Following the war, many of the surviving raiders remained close friends and visited each other often. Raider Jacob Parrott's only son John Marion Parrott married Edith Gertrude Brown, one of Wilson Brown's eight children. Their children had the unique distinction of being the grandchildren of TWO Medal of Honor recipients.
- Raider William Pittenger went on to become a minister after his war service and published the story of the raiders in 1863's DARING AND SUFFERING: A HISTORY OF THE GREAT RAILROAD ADVENTURE. This historical account was reprinted by Golden West Books in 1966 under the title IN PURSUIT OF THE GENERAL.
- The surviving raiders held periodic gatherings, including a reunion in 1906 that included William Fuller who, on behalf of the Confederacy, pursued the stolen General in its mission north from Big Shanty, GA. You can click on the photo at right for a larger image of this gathering.
- In 1914 Buster Keaton attempted to make a movie about the Andrews Raid titled "The General" but was denied permission by officials of the NC&StL (the railroad that owned the locomotive) because they objected to the historic event being presented as a comedy.
- In the 1950s Walt Disney produced the classic black & white tale of "The Great Locomotive Chase", staring Fess Parker, immortalizing the historic adventure of Andrew's Raiders in a serious and moving tale.
- In 1961 The General was restored and the following year made a centennial run to commemorate the event that made it the most famous train in history. Following that tour, it was placed on public display at The Kennesaw Civil War Museum in Kennesaw, Georgia.
FOR THE CLASSROOM:
You can click on the thumbnail at right for a page from our Medal of Honor Coloring Book showing President Lincoln meeting with six members of the Andrews Raid.
For more on Andrew's Raiders visit the excellent site at http://ngeorgia.com/history/raiders.shtml
Sources Include ABOVE AND BEYOND, Boston Publishing (Available from CMOH Society)
[History of the Medal of Honor] [[The First Presentation]
[Development of the Medal in Appearance] [Time Line of MOH History]
[MOH Statistics] [Interesting Facts about the Medal]
[MOH Museum] [National Medal of Honor Day] [Links]
[Medal of Honor -- BLESSING or BURDEN]
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