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Full Text Citations For Award of
 
The Navy Cross to Members of the US Navy
 World War 1 
1298 Total Awards

Submarine & Combat at Sea

A total of 85 Navy Crosses were awarded for heroic actions during specific sea battles with enemy submarines and aircraft.

A - F

Adams, Ashley D.
Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. C-137
Date Of Action:
September 6, 1918 and Other Actions

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant (j.g.) Ashley D. Adams, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commanding officer of the U.S.S.C. No. 137 and Sub Chaser Unit 6, engaged in the important, exacting, and hazardous duty of patrolling the waters of the war zone and operating against enemy submarines and patrol vessels, and especially for taking part in the attack on September 6, 1918, when depth charge attacks were made and it is believed that the submarine was destroyed.

 

Agraz, John
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Col. E. L. Drake
Date Of Action:
September 16, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate John Agraz, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commanding officer of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Col. E. L. Drake, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On September 16, 1917, a periscope was sighted and the ship swung and
fired four shots, the last of which appeared to hit the periscope, which disappeared; the escort proceeded to the location of the submarine. The commander of the Armed Guard is considered to have successfully accomplished his mission.

 

Ahlfors, William
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, U.S.S. Pathfinder
Date Of Action:
September 27, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate William Ahlfors, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard of the steamship Pathfinder; especially for prompt action when the Pathfinder was missed by a torpedo on September 27, 1917, torpedo passing below the boat. Armed guard opened fire on the periscope, and it is believed that it hit the submarine
with the second shot, as the submarine came to surface in the midst of a red cloud of reddish smoke and disappeared.

 

Arnold, Elmer D.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Chincha
Date Of Action:
March 21, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Elmer D. Arnold, U.S. Navy,
for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard on board the American S.S. Chincha during a gunfight with a German submarine March 21, 1918. The ship was saved as a result of the combined efforts of the commanding officer of the ship and the commanding officer of the Armed Guard.

 

Aveilhe, Darwin J.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Pioneer
Date Of Action:
March 2, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Darwin J. Aveilhe, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Pioneer, and in an engagement with an enemy submarine. On March 2, 1918, when that vessel was in a company with a British Merchantman, a submarine was sighted and opened fire, shells falling near the Pioneer. Three shots were fired at the submarine, which then continued after the British vessel, and both ships finally escaped.

 

Bagley, James A.
Machinist's Mate First Class, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. Wakiva
Date Of Action:
November 28, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Machinist's Mate First Class James A. Bagley, U.S. Navy, for distinguished conduct and devotion to duty while serving on the U.S.S. Wakiva in an engagement with an enemy submarine on November 28, 1917. Machinist's Mate First Class Bagley was on duty in the starboard engine room when
depth charges were released. They exploded so near that everyone below thought the Wakiva had been torpedoed. The firemen started from the fire room to the engine room to go on deck. Bagley, by his firmness and coolness induced the men to return to their fires, and by his words and example inspired the engine and fire room forces, so that throughout the engagement the vessel operated with a full head of steam.

 

Barnhart, Edward
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Harwood
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Edward Barnhart, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard of the steamship Harwood, which was attacked by an enemy submarine; especially for very prompt action in opening fire on the periscope. The Harwood Escaped uninjured.

 

Beerman, Thomas James
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard S.S. Boringuem
Date Of Action:
October 30, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Thomas James Beerman, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard of the steamship Boringuem, especially for the very prompt action on October 30, 1917, when an enemy submarine was first sighted 70 yards off port bow about 11:45 p.m. The Armed Guard opened fire. The first shot missed, the second took off the conning tower, and the third hit the submarine which exploded. The fourth shot fell short. The submarine sank stern-first.

 

Berg, Holger E.
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
Executive Officer, U.S.S. Lake Forest
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Commander Holger E. Berg, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for distinguished services as executive officer of the U.S.S. Lake Forest during an engagement between that ship and an enemy submarine as a result of which engagement it is believed that the submarine was severely damaged.

 

Biel, Robert James
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, U.S.S. Orion
Date Of Action:
August 7 and September 17 & 27, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Robert James Biel, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the U.S.S. Orion, and in encounters with enemy submarines. On August 7, 1917, an enemy submarine was sighted, which appeared and disappeared several times. Each time it appeared, fire was opened on it, and it finally disappeared in a rain squall. On September 17, 1917 sighted an enemy submarine, which launched a torpedo, missing the ship. Ship opened fire on the submarine, which disappeared. On September 27th, sighted a submarine, and fired three shots, no further action.

 

Bohan, John F.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard S.S. Virginian
Date Of Action:
June 10, 1017

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate John F. Bohan, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S. S. Virginian, and in an engagement with an enemy submarine. On June 10, 1917, a torpedo was observed and the ship maneuvered so that it missed. The submarine then opened fire, which was returned by the ship, which fired sixteen shots. The submarine then disappeared.

 

Chambers, Henry R.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Felix Taussig
Date Of Action:
May 12, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Henry R. Chambers, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as Commander of the Armed Guard of the S. S. Felix Taussig, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On May 12, 1918, the ship was attacked by a submarine, which fired torpedoes, but through quick maneuvering, they missed. The submarine was then sighted, and four shots fired, the last of which was reported to be a hit.

 

Clark, William John
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Silver Shell
Date Of Action:
May 30, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant William John Clark, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard
of the S.S. Silver Shell. For the very prompt action in opening fire on the submarine which was sighted on May 30, 1917. The submarine was evidently badly damaged as she submerged, leaving her crew on deck. The evidence showed that the gunnery was excellent and the French Government later stated that this was the first submarine sunk after America entered the war.

 

Cooke, Henry D.
Commander, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Allen
Date Of Action:
March 11 & 16, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Commander Henry D. Cooke, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commanding officer of the U.S.S.
Allen, operating in the war zone and protecting vitally important convoys of troop and cargo ships through the area of submarine activity, and for prompt and efficient action in contacts with enemy submarines on March 11 and March 16, 1918.

 

Cornell, Walter
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, S.S. Woonsocket
Date Of Action:
March 21, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Walter Cornell, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Woonsocket, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On March 21, 1918, a submarine was sighted, which disappeared, and shortly afterwards
reappeared. The ship changed course and fired one shot, and the submarine submerged.

 

Crouch, Joseph L.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, S.S. Kermanshah
Date Of Action:
July 30, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Joseph L. Crouch, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Kermanshah, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On July 30, 1918, a torpedo was sighted, but through quick maneuvering,
it missed the ship. Ten minutes later a second torpedo was sighted. The ship again maneuvered and it missed. The ship opened fire, one shot, and the submarine disappeared. Later the submarine came to the surface at a distance, and fire again was opened on it, when the submarine disappeared.

 

Crowley, Florence
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Goldshell
Date Of Action:
July 10, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Florence Crowley, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Goldshell, and in an engagement with an enemy submarine.
On July 10, 1917, the submarine was sighted awash, and the ship opened fire. The submarine fired two shots, dropped astern and disappeared.

 

Demarest, John
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Brindilla
Date Of Action:
October 27, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate John Demarest, U.S. Navy, for
distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Brindilla, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On October 27, 1918, a submarine was sighted awash and fire opened on it for half an hour, during which thirteen shots were fired, some of which appeared to be hits. The submarine then submerged and disappeared.

 

Dick, Evans R., Jr.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
commander U.S.S. C-36
Date Of Action:
August 21 & 23 and September 2, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Evans R. Dick, Jr., U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the U.S.S. C-36 and Submarine Chaser Unit 4, engaged in the important, exacting, and hazardous duty of patrolling the waters of the war zone and operating against enemy submarines and patrol vessels, and especially for taking part in attacks upon enemy submarines on August 21, August 23, and September 2, 1918.

 

Donnelly, Bernard Patrick
Chief Gunner, U.S. Navy
S.S. Glynn
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner Bernard Patrick Donnelly, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Glynn. The Glynn was attacked by a submarine which opened fire at 4,500 yards. When the submarine approached within three hundred yards fire was
opened and the submarine disappeared. It is believed that the prompt action of Chief Gunner Donnelly was responsible for the saving of the vessel.

 

Dormandy, Raymond L.
Electrician First Class, U.S. Navy
U.S. Submarine 0-6
Date Of Action:
August 7, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Electrician First Class Raymond L. Dormandy, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism and devotion to duty while serving on the U.S. Submarine 0-6, when that vessel was fired upon in an awash condition and hulled six times on August 7, 1918. Stationed at the main motor controllers, over which water from leaks was pouring, short circuiting some of the leaks, Electrician Dormandy kept his position, throwing the controller in and thus keeping the vessel under control though suffering electric shocks, until the vessel was out of danger.

 

Earle, Norman P.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. Wadsworth
Date Of Action:
July 29, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Norman P. Earle, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as officer of the deck of the U.S.S. Wadsworth on July 29, 1917, on the occasion of an encounter with an enemy submarine. Lieutenant Earle was the first to sight the submarine and acted promptly and correctly in changing the course, and when in the proper position he dropped a depth charge which is believed to have either crippled the submarine or destroyed it.

 

English, Huntington
Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
U.S.S. Wakiva
Date Of Action:
October 28, 1917 & November 28, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant (j.g.) Huntington English, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for distinguished service in the line of his profession on the occasion of the torpedoing of the Finland on October 28, 1917, when he jumped overboard from the U.S.S. Wakiva in a rough sea and rescued a soldier who had jumped over-board from the Finland. Later, as fire control officer of the Wakiva, Lieutenant English participated in an engagement with a submarine on November 28, 1917, as a result of which the submarine was severely damaged, if not actually destroyed.

 

Fabris, John
Motor Machinist First Class, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. C-179
Date Of Action:
October 2, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Motor Machinist First Class John Fabris, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service i n the line of his profession and devotion to duty while serving on the U.S.S. C-179, in the engagement, at Durazzo, on October 2, 1918. During the whole engagement, he held in place with his hand a broken trip rod igniter
spring, thereby enabling his vessel to maintain speed and position when otherwise she would have been forced out of formation to make repairs.

 

Fairfield, Arthur P.
Commander, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. McDougal
Date Of Action:
September 8, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Commander Arthur P. Fairfield, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commanding officer of the U.S.S.
McDougal, operating in the war zone and protecting vitally important convoys of troop and cargo ships through the area of submarine activity, and for prompt and efficient action in contact on September 8 with a submarine which attempted an attack upon a convoy.

 

Fallon, Henry N.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. O'Brien
Date Of Action:
September 14, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Henry N. Fallon, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as an officer of the watch of the U.S.S. O'Brien in an engagement with a submarine on September 14, 1917. The submarine was discovered in the early dawn and Lieutenant Fallon immediately headed for her at full speed, forcing her to submerge and preventing an attack upon the merchant vessels which were under the escort of the O'Brien.

 

Farquhar, Allan S.
Commander, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Sterett
Date Of Action:
October 4, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Commander Allan S. Farquhar, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commanding officer of the U.S.S.
Sterett operating in the war zone and protecting vitally important convoys of troop and cargo ships through the area of submarine activity. Also for resolute and skilful service in rescuing the passengers and crew of the Japanese steamer Hirano Maru on October 4, 1918, and for prompt and efficient action in contacts with enemy submarines on May 31 and June 1.

 

Farwell, Earl T.
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Executive Officer, U.S.S. Wakiva
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Commander Earl T. Farwell, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service as executive officer of the U.S.S. Wakiva on the occasion of
the engagement of that vessel with a German submarine, as a result of which the submarine was destroyed.

G - L

Glann, Archie E.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. O-6
Date Of Action:
August 7, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Archie E. Glann, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism as an officer of the U.S.S. O-6 when that vessel was fired upon in an awash condition and hulled six times, on August 7,1918, in going on deck while the vessel was under fire, to signal and to open up the conning tower, which was flooded and inaccessible from below.

 

Gresham, William Fuller
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Aztec
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant William Fuller Gresham, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service as commanding officer of the Armed Guard on S.S. Aztec in an engagement with an enemy submarine. The report indicates that the men showed the proper zeal, and were well trained and efficient.

 

*Groves, Benjamin H.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Nyanza
Date Of Action:
January 13, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Benjamin H. Groves, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Nyanza. On January 13, 1918, the Nyanza engaged a submarine in gunfire for two and one-half hours and apparently hit the submarine. The evidence shows that the ship was undoubtedly saved by the prompt and efficient work of the commander of the Armed Guard and gun's crew.

 

Gullickson, Olaf J.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, S.S. Norlina
Date Of Action:
June 4, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Olaf J. Gullickson, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard on the S.S. Norlina. For prompt action in an engagement at 6.30 p. m. on June 4, 1917, after the Norlina had been struck a glancing blow on the port side by an enemy torpedo, the crew opening fire on the submarine and hit the submarine twice when it disappeared.

 

Hamm, Horace L.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Navajo
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Horace L. Hamm, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service as commanding officer of the Armed Guard of steamship Navajo. In an engagement with an enemy submarine which lasted 35 minutes, the submarine fired 40 shots, one of which struck
the Navajo. The Navajo fired 27 shots. The twenty-sixth shot was seen to hit the submarine just forward of the forward gun and a cloud of flame and dark gray smoke burst from the hatches. Almost immediately, the submarine sank bow first, the stem lifting high out of the water so that the propellers could be seen revolving.

 

Hancock, Lewis, Jr.
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. AL-4
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Commander Lewis Hancock, Jr., U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession in command of the AL-4.
Under his command this vessel made numerous contacts with the enemy, and on one occasion attempted the dangerous feat of diving at a submerged enemy submarine to ram her.

 

Hansen, Samuel
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Westoil
Date Of Action:
November 28, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Samuel Hansen, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard of the steamship Westoil. Upon sighting two periscopes on November 28, 1918, the Armed Guard fired 23 rounds ammunition and prevented an attack upon the Westoil.

 

Harlow, Hamilton
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Executive Officer, U.S.S. Nicholson
Date Of Action:
November 17, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Commander Hamilton Harlow, U.S. Navy,
for distinguished service in the line of his profession as executive officer of the U.S.S. Nicholson in an attack upon the German submarine U-58 and subsequently in boarding and taking command of the torpedoed steamship Luckenbach, which through his firm and efficient action was brought safely into port.

 

Heil, Edward J.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Osage
Date Of Action:
February 19, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Edward J. Heil, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Osage, and in encounter with an enemy submarine. On February 19, 1918, in convoy, when two British ships were torpedoed, that ship picked up the submarine wake and fired three snots. Four hours later again sighted submarine wake and fired five shots, a torpedo was fired at the ship but missed. A destroyer then dropped depth bombs.

 

Henry, Walter O.
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. Fanning
Date Of Action:
November 17, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Commander Walter O. Henry, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as officer of the deck on the U.S.S. Fanning in initiating prompt and efficient offensive action on the occasion of the engagement with, and the capture of the German submarine U-58 on November 17, 1917.

 

Herbster, Victor D.
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, U.S.S. St. Louis
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Commander Victor D. Herbster, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession in command of the Armed Guard of the U.S.S. St. Louis, where his good judgment and quick action probably saved that ship from being torpedoed on three occasions, and in one case resulted in sinking of an enemy submarine. Later as commanding officer of the U. S. Naval Air Station, Wexford, Ireland, he rendered valuable service in establishing and operating same.

 

Holland, John
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Tidewater
Date Of Action:
October 23, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate John Holland, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Tidewater, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On October 23, 1917, a torpedo was sighted, and the ship maneuvered so that it missed. The submarine then appeared so close, the forward gun could not be brought to bear, and an endeavor to ram the submarine was made, which, however, was not successful. The submarine submerged before the gun could be brought to bear.

 

Hurell, William A.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Communipaw
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate William A. Hurell, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Communipaw, particularly for the very prompt action and immediate firing upon the submarine which was sighted with conning tower exposed. Nine rounds ammunition were fired and only ceased when the submarine was attacked by a French destroyer. It is considered that the prompt action of Chief Boatswain's Mate Hurrell prevented an attack by the submarine.

Jensen, Johannes F.
Commander, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
Acting Master, S.S. Finland
Date Of Action:
October 28, 1917

Synopsis:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Commander Johannes F. Jensen, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for
distinguished service in the line of his profession as Acting Master of the S.S. Finland on October 28, 1917. On this date the S.S. Finland was torpedoed the German submarine U-93 150-miles off the French Coast. Despite the damage, the Finland was returned to port.

 

Kane, William A.
Chief Master at Arms, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Wico
Date Of Action:
June 23, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Master at Arms William A. Kane, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Wico, and in an engagement with an enemy submarine. On June 23, 1917, an enemy submarine was sighted and one shot fired at it, landing close to the submarine, which then disappeared. At this time, the commander of the Armed Guard used drastic action to prevent the merchant crew from abandoning the ship.

 

Kelly, James A.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, US Susanna
Date Of Action:
April 21 & April 29, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate James A. Kelly, U.S. Navy, for
exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard of the U.S. Susanna. On April 21, 6.45 a.m., Chief Gunner's Mate Kelly opened fire on a periscope at a range of 750 yards. It appears that the third shot hit the periscope and prevented an attack by the submarine on the Susanna. Similarly, on April 29, for the prompt action when attacked by a submarine.

 

Kennedy, William R.
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Arethusa
Date Of Action:
June 6, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Commander William R. Kennedy, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for distinguished service in the line of his profession while in command of the U.S.S. Arethusa in contact with an enemy submarine on June 6, 1918, upon which occasion it is believed that two hits were made by the gun crews of the Arethusa.

 

Kerrigan, Patrick John
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. William O'Brien
Date Of Action:
June 6, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Patrick John Kerrigan, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. William O'Brien and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On June 6, 1917, a torpedo was sighted, but through quick maneuvering missed the ship. Later a periscope was sighted and four shots fired at it, and it is believed the second shot hit the periscope, which disappeared.

 

Kersten,Charles
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Muskogee
Date Of Action:
October 21, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Charles Kersten, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Muskogee, and in an encounter with the enemy submarine. On October 21, 1918, a submarine was sighted approaching at full speed, which opened fire, the shots dropping close to the ship. The ship returned the fire, causing the submarine to open the range. The action lasted about an hour, the ship firing twenty-three rounds, and the submarine then disappeared.

 

Langner, Frederick W.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Jonancy
Date Of Action:
August 7, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Frederick W. Langner, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Jonancy, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On
August 7, 1917, in convoy, escorting the French cruiser Dupetit Thouars, the French cruiser was torpedoed and sunk. The Jonancy was astern of the cruiser, and a few moments later sighted the conning tower of the submarine, and fired two shots, the first of which was reported as a hit. The submarine disappeared. Later the ship picked up a boat from the cruiser with twenty survivors.

 

Leahy, Lamar R.
Commander, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Noma
Date Of Action:
November 28, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Commander Lamar R. Leahy, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commanding officer of the U.S.S.
Noma in an encounter with an enemy submarine on the night of the 28th of November, 1917, in which the submarine was driven off and the convoy of storeships under escort of the Noma saved from damage and possible destruction.

 

Little, Leon M.
Lieutenant (j.g.), U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
Armed Guard S.S. Joseph Cudahy
Date Of Action:
November 17 & 21, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant (j.g.) Leon M. Little, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Joseph Cudahy, and in encounters with enemy submarines. On November 17th, 1917, a periscope was sighted and the ship fired nine shots, when the submarine disappeared, again reappeared, when six more shots were fired, and it finally disappeared. On November 21, 1917, at night, sighted a submarine close aboard, attempted to ram and fired three shots, when gun jammed. The submarine then disappeared.

 

Loomis, Daniel David
Boatswain's Mate Second Class, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. Fanning
Date Of Action:
November 17, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Boatswain's Mate Second Class Daniel David Loomis, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service and devotion to duty while serving on the U.S.S. Fanning. Boatswain's Mate Loomis was bridge lookout on November 17, 1917, when the Fanning engaged and captured the German Submarine U-58. He exhibited remarkable alertness, initiative and ability as a lookout, in sighting and reporting the periscope, only a small part of which was visible.

M - Z

McCausland, Edward Norton
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Rochester
Date Of Action:
November 21, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Edward Norton McCausland, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard on the S.S. Rochester, for his very prompt action when a submarine was sighted on November 21, 1917. It is believed that this prompt action prevented an attack on the vessel at that time. Later at night the vessel was torpedoed and sunk. The evidence shows that the Armed Guard acted in a very satisfactory manner.

 

Mentch, William A.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard S.S. Pisa
Date Of Action:
September 17, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate William A. Mentch, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Pisa, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On September
17, 1917, sighted an enemy submarine and fired three shots. The submarine submerged and reappeared several times before finally disappearing.

 

Moro, Charles L.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Tidewater
Date Of Action:
March 17, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Charles L. Moro, U.S. Navy,
for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Tidewater, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine on March 17, 1918, at night. The submarine was sighted close aboard, and an unsuccessful attempt to ram it was made. Three shots were fired as the submarine submerged. The second shot was reported as a hit.

 

Neargardt, Henry A. L.
Chief Water Tender, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. George G. Henry
Date Of Action:
September 29, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Water Tender Henry A. L. Neargardt, U.S. Navy, for heroic and excellent behavior, coolness, skill, and bravery under gun fire of a German submarine when the U.S.S. George G. Henry was attacked September 29, 1918.

 

Nordquist, E. E.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Chincha
Date Of Action:
March 21, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate E. E. Nordquist, U.S. Navy, for
exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of the Armed Guard on the S.S. Chincha. For prompt action in returning the fire of an enemy submarine which opened fire at a range of 6,000 yards and fired 30 shots at Chincha. The Chincha fired eight shots and caused the submarine to submerge.

 

Osterhaus, Hugo W.
Captain, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Wheeling
Date Of Action:
May 17, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Captain Hugo W. Osterhaus, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commanding officer of the U.S.S.
Wheeling, engaged in the important, exacting and hazardous duty of patrolling the waters infested with enemy submarines and mines, and in escorting and protecting merchant vessels through these waters; and in particular, for an attack, in company with other escorting ships, upon an enemy submarine on May 17, 1918.

 

Pardee, Wilford H.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Westoil
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Wilford H. Pardee, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious service in command of the Armed Guard of the steamship Westoil. Westoil was attacked by a submarine. A torpedo was fired and missed. The submarine opened fire; fire was returned by Westoil and after 15 rounds
of ammunition fired the submarine submerged.

 

Peterson, Axel
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Eurana
Date Of Action:
August 27, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Axel Peterson, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as Commander of the Armed Guard
of the S.S. Eurana, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On August 27, 1917, the submarine was sighted, the ship fired two shots, and the submarine disappeared. Later in the night, a submarine was sighted, but the ship escaped in the darkness without action.

 

Pope, Ralph E.
Captain, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Surveyor
Date Of Action:
May 15, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Captain Ralph E. Pope, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commanding officer of the U.S.S. Surveyor engaged in convoy duty in the Mediterranean on May 15, 1918, when the Surveyor with the U.S.S. Wheeling and U.S.S. Venetia encountered a submarine and attacked with depth charges with the result that the submarine is believed to have been sunk.

 

Ranney, Lew D.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Navajo
Date Of Action:
April 11, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Lew D. Ranney, U.S. Navy, for
distinguished service in the line of his profession as Commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Navajo, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On April 11, 1918, a submarine was sighted in the evening and three shots were fired at it by the ship, and one by the escorting patrol. The submarine submerged and disappeared.

 

Ransom, Philip C.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
Officer of the Deck, U.S.S. AL-2
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Philip C. Ransom, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for distinguished service in the line of his profession as officer of the deck of the U.S.S. AL-2 upon the occasion of an encounter with an enemy submarine. Lieutenant Ransom was the first to sight the enemy and took prompt and correct action in heading direct for it.

 

Reese, Walter W.
Fireman First Class, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, U.S.S. George G. Henry
Date Of Action:
September 29, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Fireman First Class Walter W. Reese, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service as member of the crew of the Armed Guard of the U.S.S. George G. Henry. Fireman First Class Reese was recommended for heroic and excellent behavior, coolness, skill, and bravery under gunfire of a German submarine when the George G. Henry was attacked September 29, 1918.

 

Reiter, Joseph E.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Paulsboro
Date Of Action:
February 25 & March 1, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Joseph E. Reiter, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as Commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Paulsboro, and in two engagements with enemy submarines. On February 25, 1918, at night, a torpedo was sighted, but by quick maneuvering, it missed the ship. Six shots were fired at the submarine, which then disappeared. On March 1, 1918, a submarine was sighted, and an engagement followed, lasting fifty minutes. The ship was struck several times. Several shots from the ship struck close to the submarine, which then disappeared.

 

Reynaud, Claude F.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
Officer of the Deck U.S.S. Lydonia
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Claude F. Reynaud, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for distinguished service in the line of his profession as officer of the deck of the U.S.S. Lydonia on the occasion of an encounter with a submarine, when by his prompt and correct action the Lydonia was enabled to attack with depth bombs and, in conjunction with H.M.S. Basilisk, to destroy the submarine.

 

Riefkohl, Frederick L.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, U.S.S. Philadelphia
Date Of Action:
August 2, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Frederick L. Riefkohl, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as Commander of the Armed Guard
of the U.S.S. Philadelphia, and in an engagement with an enemy submarine. On August 2, 1917, a periscope was sighted, and then a torpedo passed under the stern of the ship. A shot was fired, which struck close to the submarine, which then disappeared.

 

Schlosberg, Philip
Chief Master at Arms, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. W.W. Tilford
Date Of Action:
June 8, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Master at Arms Philip Schlosberg, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. W. W. Tilford, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On June 8, 1918, off Spezia, Italy, a submarine was sighted, at which twenty rounds were
fired, some of which are believed to have damaged the submarine, as it came to the surface, and made for the beach, followed by the Italian torpedo boat escort.

 

Schmidt, William H.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard S.S. Amphion
Date Of Action:
October 12, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate William H. Schmidt, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as Commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Amphion, and in an engagement with an enemy submarine. On October 12, 1918, the submarine was sighted and an engagement followed, which lasted one hour and twenty minutes during which the ship was hit several times, after
which the submarine disappeared.

 

Seiler, Edwin J.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard S.S. Armenia
Date Of Action:
June 10, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Edwin J. Seiler, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as Commander of the Armed Guard
of the S.S. Armenia, and in an engagement with an enemy submarine. On June 10, 1917, at nightfall, the lookout reported a sail, which proved to be an enemy submarine, which opened fire. Ship returned fire with one shot, when the submarine disappeared.

 

Seligman, William H.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Suffolk
Date Of Action:
February 27, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate William H. Seligman, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Suffolk, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On February 27, 1918, the convoy was attacked by an enemy submarine, and two ships torpedoed. A periscope was sighted from the ship, and five shots fired, which struck close to the submarine, which then disappeared.

 

Seymour, Philip
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Mongolia
Date Of Action:
June 1, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Philip Seymour, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as Commander of the Armed Guard
of the S.S. Mongolia. On June 1, 1917, an enemy submarine fired a torpedo at that vessel, which through quick maneuvering missed the ship. Four shots were fired at the periscope, when the submarine disappeared.

 

Shaw, Howard R.
Ensign, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
Officer of the Deck, U.S.S. Christabel
Date Of Action:
May 21, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Ensign Howard R. Shaw, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for distinguished service in the line of his profession as officer of the deck of the U.S.S. Christabel on the occasion of an encounter with an enemy submarine on
May 21, 1918, in promptly heading for the submarine with the intent to ram, with the result that it was possible to drop depth charges at the right time and place, damaging the submarine so severely that she was obliged to intern at Santander, Spain, for the remainder of the war.

 

Sherer, William H.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard S.S. Desota
Date Of Action:
July 24, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate William H. Sherer, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Desota and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On July 24, 1918, another ship in the convoy was torpedoed, and later a periscope was sighted from the ship. One shot was fired, which struck the object, which disappeared.

 

Smith, Edward M.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Santa Cecelia
Date Of Action:
October 8, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Edward M. Smith, U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in charge of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Santa Cecelia, displaying heroic conduct during an encounter between the Santa Cecelia and German submarines on October 8, 1917. Chief Boatswain's Mate Smith was commended for his zeal and efficiency in the performance of his duty.

 

Steffen, Joseph, Jr.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
U.S.S. Frank H. Buck
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Joseph Steffen, Jr., U.S. Navy, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in command of both gun crews of the U.S.S. Frank H. Buck at the time of an engagement with an enemy submarine, doing the spotting for the after 6-inch gun. By his coolness and masterful handling of the gun's crew during the engagement, which lasted 29 minutes, it is believed that the enemy submarine was sunk.

 

Sullivan, James Eugene
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Clara Mennig
Date Of Action:
September 11, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate James Eugene Sullivan, U.S.
Navy, for exceptionally meritorious service in command of the Armed Guard of the steamship Clara Mennig, especially for prompt action on September 11, 1917, in opening fire after sighting submarine. One shell burst on the enemy submarine, which did not open fire but disappeared.

 

Thebaud, Leo H.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Paul Jones
Date Of Action:
June - October, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Leo H. Thebaud, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commanding officer of the U.S.S.
Paul Jones (old) acting as escort to troop and merchant convoys from Hampton Roads, and in patrolling against enemy submarines from June to October, 1918. On the night of June 30, 1918, while under convoys the U.S.S. Henderson took fire and it became necessary to transfer the troops on board to another vessel. The Paul Jones transferred the troops in a skilful and gallant manner. Through the zeal and energy of Lieutenant Thebaud, this old destroyer was kept actively on duty.

 

Twining, Robert B.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
Officer of the Deck, U.S.S. Porter
Date Of Action:
World War I

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Robert B. Twining, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as officer of the deck of the U.S.S. Porter, upon the occasion of an encounter with an enemy submarine. Lieutenant Twining acted promptly and correctly, with the result that the submarine was attacked with depth bombs and is believed to have been so seriously damaged that she was obliged to return to her base.

 

Wall, Charles
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Lake Bridge
Date Of Action:
July 5, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Commander Charles Wall, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for distinguished service in the line of his profession in action with a German submarine on July 5, 1918, when in command of the U.S.S. Lake Bridge.

 

Ware, Bruce R.
Lieutenant, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Mongolia
Date Of Action:
April 19, 1917

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Bruce R. Ware, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Mongolia, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On April 19, 1917, a submarine periscope was sighted and a shot fired which is believed to have hit the submarine which was not seen further.

 

Werner, Richard
Lieutenant Commander, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces)
Commanding Officer, U.S.S. Kanawha
Date Of Action:
July 16, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Lieutenant Commander Richard Werner, U.S. Navy (Reserve Forces), for distinguished service in the line of his profession in command of the U.S.S. Kanawha on July 16, 1918, in promptly and skillfully attacking an enemy submarine and thus averting an attack upon the convoy to which the Kanawha belonged.

 

Wetmore, Charles A.
Chief Gunner's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Jason
Date Of Action:
August 7, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Gunner's Mate Charles A. Wetmore, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Jason, and in an engagement with an enemy submarine. On
August 7, 1918, the submarine, with a sail rigged, was sighted and fire opened on it. The first shot carried away the sail, and the second landed close to its conning tower, nine shots in all being fired. The submarine opened fire with shrapnel, which burst close to the ship. A destroyer then came up and opened fire on the submarine.

 

Williams, Henry John
Chief Quartermaster, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard S.S. Nanesmond
Date Of Action:
January 19, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Quartermaster Henry John Williams, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Nansemond, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine.
On January 9, 1918, sighted a submarine, signaled convoy and opened fire, six shots without hits. Escorting destroyers steamed to vicinity and the submarine disappeared.

 

Williams, Mendarus G.
Gunner, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard, S.S. Buford
Date Of Action:
July 5, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Gunner Mendarus G. Williams, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Buford, and in an encounter with an enemy submarine. On July 5, 1918, the submarine disappeared, then reappeared, and ten more shots were fired, and the submarine finally disappeared.

 

Yost, Frederick P.
Chief Boatswain's Mate, U.S. Navy
Armed Guard S.S. Koln
Date Of Action:
October 31, 1917 & January 27, 1918

Citation:
The Navy Cross is awarded to Chief Boatswain's Mate Frederick P. Yost, U.S. Navy, for distinguished service in the line of his profession as commander of the Armed Guard of the S.S. Koln, and in encounters with enemy submarines. On October 31, 1917, a submarine was sighted close aboard; attempted to ram without success. Fired four shots, the last of which struck close. The submarine submerged. On January 27, 1918, in convoy, in the morning, sighted a periscope and fired five shots, periscope disappeared. In the afternoon, sighted submarine awash, fired four shots, when the submarine submerged.

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