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NOTE
: THE DEFINING GENERATION is a project begun by Doug and Pam Sterner in 2002 and completed in 2006. Initially is was prepared for publication as a book, however with their changing focus to development of a database of military awards, was postponed indefinitely so they could concentrate on that larger, more important work. The stories found herein however, need to be shared, and they have consented to make this compilation available in this format. While each story can stand alone, it is recommended that for continuity, readers will be best served by reading the chapters sequentially from first to last.

 

The Defining Generation

-

Defining Dissent

Muhammad Ali

"Champions aren't made in gyms. Champions are made from something they have deep inside them - a desire, a dream, a vision. They have to have last-minute stamina, they have to be a little faster, they have to have the skill and the will. But the will must be stronger than the skill."

Muhammad Ali

 

The war in Vietnam was not the only "game in town" during the era. In 1969 there were nearly half-a-million members of the U.S. Military serving in Vietnam but more than twice that number were deployed overseas in some 119 countries, while another 1.5 million served in support roles at home. During the period from the first buildup to war in 1964 until the Vietnam War ended in 1975, slightly more than 9 million men and women served in the Armed Forces, however only slightly more than one-fourth of them ever served in Vietnam.

This meant then that being drafted was not a sentence to serve in combat. In fact during the Vietnam War, two-thirds of those serving in uniform were volunteers. The other 3 million (out of 27 million draft age men) were individuals who either enlisted or who volunteered for the draft.* While it may well have seemed during those years that everyone you knew was getting drafted and sent to Vietnam, the truth was far different. In fact, slightly less than 650,000 draftees (including those who volunteered for the draft) saw duty in Vietnam .

Such facts and figures aside, 17,725 men who were conscripted to service died in that war. As such the Selective Service call-up was a dreaded evil and the Draft was an inequitable and somewhat arbitrary fate for young men with plans other than military service. Young women, many of whom lost brothers, husbands, friends and boyfriends blamed the Draft for their losses and railed against it. So too, any number of young men facing potential conscription also demonstrated against and tried to avoid being drafted.

It is important to distinguished between Draft protesters, Draft evaders, and Draft dodgers, a group of young who are often erroneously lumped together as a single group. Draft protesters were often the men who burned their Draft cards in public ceremonies. It is doubtful that anyone ever burned their Draft card alone in the privacy of their own home. The act itself was a voicing of dissent or a means of garnering public support and sometimes sympathy. It was an act that cause revulsion among the older generation and that was seen as inappropriate even by many who opposed the war but understood the meaning of call to duty.

Draft Dodgers on the other hand, were those who took steps to violate Selective Service laws. Like a player in the game of dodge-ball moves in order to avoid being tagged, these were young men who hid out in hippie communes or moved to places like Canada , in essence renouncing their loyalty and affiliation with the United States in order to dodge conscription. Young men already in military service were encouraged by some anti-Draft organizations to desert, which some also did. It is estimated that between 10,000 and 20,000 dodgers and deserters emigrated to Canada between 1966 and 1974. All were granted opportunity for unconditional pardon by President Jimmy Carter on January 21, 1977 .

Draft evaders, on the other hand, were quite unlike the dodgers. Some avoided conscription by taking advantage of loopholes in the Selective Service laws, a perfectly legal if not sometimes arbitrary option. In 1966 actor George Hamilton was exempted from the Draft after petitioning his own Draft Board for a deferment base on hardships at home, advising them that his mother needed him to care for her. Of course it didn't hurt his cause that at the time he was also dating the daughter of President Lyndon Johnson. And perhaps it was just such inequities in the Selective Service program that most angered the young. They were upset  not so much being called to serve as they did to the fact that often the rich, the powerful, and the brightest college students escaped being called up.

Some young men sought exemption from the Draft due to special situations: sole surviving son, deferment to complete an education, and even for personal reasons such as religious prohibitions against military service. The latter are called Conscientious Objectors and many of them did serve in non-combat roles, at least two C.O.s earning Medals of Honor, while others belonged to faiths that prohibited even these non-combat roles. One Conscious Objector was a high-profile national figure, the World Boxing Heavyweight Champion Muhammad Ali. His request for C.O. status went unheeded, forcing him to make some serious personal decisions. The draft may be the one thing in his career Muhammad Ali never dodge. Instead he stayed home to face up to the consequences of his convictions. It cost him nearly everything but his self-respect.

Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., was born in Louisville , Kentucky , on January 17, 1942 . His father, Cassius Clay, Sr., was a billboard and sign painter and his mother helped support the family by working as a housekeeper. Louisville at the time was not only segregated but blatantly prejudiced. Young Clay recalls in his autobiography, going downtown and wondering why he never saw any Negro faces in the crowd. He also recalls thirstily crying for water outside a five-and-dime shop one day and his mother telling him that they couldn't go inside for a drink, the waitress would not serve them because they were Black. Sadly, such injustices heaped upon him, his family, and other Black people, such actions seemed almost minor in comparison to other far worse incidents. Cassius was thirteen years old in 1955 when Emmitt Till, a 15-year-old Black boy from Chicago was murdered in nearby Mississippi for allegedly whistling at a white woman. That grave and deadly injustice impressed itself deeply on young Clay's mind and evoked a desire for revenge.

 Unable to get memories of what had happened to Till out of his mind, Cassius and a friend made a late-night trip to the railroad station on Louisville's west side. In his autobiography remembers vividly a billboard that towered over the site of their planned vengeance. It was the image of a white man with finger pointed seemingly directly at him and the words "Uncle Sam Wants You!" The two boys threw rocks at the sign and then placed more rocks on the tracks to inflict damage on their enemy before racing home. Two days later he mustered enough courage to return to the scene of the crime where work crews repaired the damage of a derailment, but what he recalls most vividly was that Uncle Sam was still pointing at him and proclaiming "I Want You."

Years later when Muhammad Ali was a boxing champion, biographers and sports writers tried to paint a less grim childhood that had formed the thinking of the man now a celebrity. Perhaps it was difficult to imagine so great a fighter coming out of poverty and the ghetto so they sugar-coated his past. In fact though both parents worked hard, wages were low (Mrs. Clay made $4 a day) and Clay and his brother Rudy grew up in poverty. The boys were often hungry because there was not sufficient food for a family of four, and because there often wasn't enough money for bus fare for both boys Cassius frequently ran to school. He raced against the bus, making it a part of his daily workout routine. Even in those days he had already determined in his young mind that one day he would be the World Heavyweight Boxing Champion, and looked upon the race as a training exercise for his future.

Cassius Clay, Sr., had been named for Cassius Marcellius Clay of the 19th Century, a white man also from Kentucky who was an early opponent of slavery. History has treated him well and his support for Abraham Lincoln helped propel the latter into the White House. In 1854 Clay was speaking in Illinois when someone in the crowed shouted the question, "Would you help a runaway slave?" Clay answered, "That depends on which way he was running."

In his own youth young Cassius was frequently challenged by others to achieve greatness as had his name sake. He failed to see the 19th century reformer as a great icon of Civil Rights and grew up wanting to become his own man rather than be held in comparison to an ancient white man who had no knowledge of what life was like for a Black child. Once, when a school teacher brought up this personal challenge, Cassius returned to school with The Writings of Cassius M. Clay by Horace Greeley. In that compendium were the abolitionist's own words noting: "I am of the opinion that the Caucasian or white is the superior race; they hve a larger and better formed brain…Historians now unite in making the Caucasian race the first in civilization through all past time." Cassius' argument silenced his teacher and may give many today who faulted him decades ago for his name change cause to understand a young man's thinking.

The incident reflects the sharp and questioning mind of a man whose intelligence is sometimes overlooked. Bettie Johnson, who knew him as a boy recalled for a 1997 article in the Louisville Courier-Journal,  "He was not a good student, school was something he did because he was supposed to." As an example of just how smart he was back then however, she noted, "I think he read a lot that wasn't assigned in school. Remember, this was in the late 1950s, before African Americans were even called 'black.' He wrote a paper on Black Muslims, and it was very upsetting to his teacher. Somehow she felt that this paper was an affront. She was a very conforming Christian, and just the mention of separatism or of blacks being super-assertive frightened her, I think. It was so different from her conformist ideas at the time. She wasn't going to pass him, but the principal, Mr. (Atwood) Wilson and I said, 'This boy is not going to fail. Because he's going to be an outstanding boxer.' I mean, we knew that then."[i]

That boxing career evolved out of one of those story-book tragedies that turn into unbelievable success stories. By 1954 young Cassius' parents had scraped together enough money to buy their twelve-year old son a bicycle. One day Cassius rode it down to Fourth and York streets for the annual convention of the Louisville Service Club; it was at this even that attending businessmen often gave out candy, ice cream, and balloons to the children. While attending the event someone stole the young boy's bicycle and he looked about for a police officer to whom he could report the crime. The first man in uniform he found was Joe Martin and Cassius approached him with tears in his eyes and anger in his heart, announcing he wanted to find and whip the culprit. Martin looked at the skinny 112-pound boy and responded, "Well, you'd better come back here and learn how to fight." Martin coached the boxing club at the Columbia Gym in the basement of the Service Club. Young Cassius took him up on the offer.

Over the next six years Clay trained under Joe Martin, a chance acquaintance who opened the door to a young boy's dream. Outside the club he was always training, running, dodging, and constantly jabbing at an invisible opponent. The Courier-Journal noted, "At Central High School in those days, Clay was known as the kid who drank water with garlic in it, who drank milk with raw eggs in it, who wouldn't smoke, who wouldn't drink even carbonated soda pop, who ran and shadow boxed about as often as he walked."[ii]

His dedication paid off and three years later he had a televised fight. At the time Joe Martin hosted a local program on WAVE-TV called "Tomorrow's Champions" and the day following that fight Clay got his first attention from the local press, a short story that noted: "Cassius Clay established himself as the No. 1 contender for the light-heavyweight title in the Golden Gloves competition next January when he scored a fourth-round technical knockout over Donnie Hall in last night's WAVE-TV fight show main event."

The following year he took that title when he fought another televised bout against Charley Baker. Baker was 23-pounds heavier than Clay and had a reputation…he was known as the bully of the west side and few people would challenge him in or out of the ring. Clay defeated him in a unanimous three-round decision.

Clay's coach and his friends watched the natural fighter whip foe after foe. It didn't matter how big they were or how fast they were, Clay had heart, drive and determination. He won six Kentucky Golden Gloves, two National Golden Gloves, and two AAU titles. He his sights on the 1960 Olympics and the young boxer won 36 consecutive bouts before Amos Johnson, a left-handed Marine defeated him in 1959. He never lost another amateur fight and made the U.S. Pan-Am team, and then lead the nine U.S. boxing titlists in the Olympic trials in San Francisco . That summer he returned home from Rome with an Olympic Gold Medal and became a local, and even a National hero.

On October 29, 1960 , Clay fought his first Pro fight against Tunney Hunsaker, defeating him and earning a $2,000 purse. From then until his 1964 bout with Sonny Liston for the Heavyweight Title he fought eighteen more times winning every fight, 15 by knockouts and his purse growing to $$56,098 for the last of these. In the meantime, as his boxing record grew, other changes in his life began to make him increasingly controversial.

In 1962 Clay registered with the Selective Service in his home town of Louisville . After testing in which he performed poorly he was classified "1-Y"…unsuitable for military service. He later remarked, "I said 'I'm the Greatest!' not 'the smartest.' " During the period which saw much upheaval in America over racial prejudice and Civil Rights, Clay studied the Muslim faith and gravitated towards the teachings of Elijah Muhammad. He also began to call himself Cassius X. One week before his 1964 title fight he was summoned to Coral Gables , Florida , to be re-tested by the Selective Service. When presented with a written test to complete he did so and signed his name, "Cassius X." It was the first time he had done so and the Selective Service supervisor questioned why. Clay explained that as a member of the Nation of Islam he was joining with other members who rejected the names of their former slave masters and that the "X" became his real but unknown Black name.

When he stepped into the ring on February 25, 1964 to face World Heavyweight Champion Sonny Liston, there was no small segment in the American public eagerly waiting for the big man twice Clay's age to put the young upstart in his place. Clay had never gone into any fight without "prepping the battlefield" with considerable rhetoric, and his actions turned off some in the American public who saw him as a "loud-mouth braggert."

Most boxing fans expected that Liston's huge fists would quickly pummel the kid from Kentucky into submission the same way he had Floyd Patterson, Cleveland Williams, Albert Westphal, and Zora Folley. Instead, Clay did his own battering and at the beginning of the seventh round Liston refused to return to the ring. The world had a new Heavyweight Champion and Clay netted nearly half-a-million dollars for the win. He had come a long ways from poverty and hunger in the poor part of Louisville .

Four weeks after the fight the Champ announced to the general public that he was a member of the Nation of Islam. On Friday, March 6, 1964 , Malcolm X took Clay on a guided tour of the United Nations building. Malcolm X announced that Clay would be granted his "X." That night Elijah Muhammad recorded a statement over the phone to be played over the radio that Clay would be renamed Muhammad (one who is worthy of praise) Ali (fourth rightly guided caliph).[iii]

Meanwhile, the Selective Service advised Muhammad Ali that though his second battery of tests were suspicious and they believed he might have intentionally failed. They also advised that, suspicion aside, because his writing and spelling skills did not meet the minimum levels he would continue to be classified "1-Y." It was a decision that drew ire from some Americans including a bigoted Georgia lawyer who initiated a "Draft that Nigger Clay" campaign. It even extended into the halls of the U.S. Congress where there were calls for an investigation into Clay's classification status. South Carolina Congressman L. Mendel Rivers stated in a public speech, "Clay's deferment is an insult to every mother's son serving in Viet Nam ."

In 1965 while Ali was successfully defending his title against both Sonny Liston and then former Champ Floyd Patterson, the United States was sending combat troops to Vietnam and the buildup demanded that increased numbers be drafted. The pressure on Clay increased, even from some of his closest advisors. Any reasonable person knew that Muhammad Ali "in uniform" was too important to risk by sending him to Vietnam …he could accomplish much more for the military as a celebrity recruiting tool. Further, service would not necessarily harm his career. Elvin Presley had entered the service at the height of his singing career, wondering how the American public would welcome him home after doing his duty. His post-service career mushroomed and even as a civilian Elvis in uniform was successful with such movies as "G.I. Blues." The safe and practical thing now for Muhammad Ali, some of his friends and advisors told him, would be not to "stir the pot" and generate negative publicity, but simply to join the military. For the young man devoted to his new faith it was a soul searching time.

In 1966 Ali was gearing up for a February 1967 bout against Ernie Terell, his 8th fight to defend his title. He was back home in Louisville when news started to buzz…the Selective Service had lowered the standards on the minimum test scores for service and 26-year-old Muhammad Ali was reclassified "1-A," fit for service and subject to the draft. When a reporter asked if the Champ would accept the draft, he still hadn't fully made up his mind and simply responded, "All I want is peace. Peace for myself and peace for the world. My religion is Islam. I am a follower of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad. I believe in Allah. I think this is the true way to save the world. There're five hundred million Muslims all over Asia , Africa and the Middle East . I'm one of them. And proud of it."[iv]

Not everyone was proud of Ali who remained the Heavyweight Boxing Champion. Former Champ Gene Tunney sent him a telegram that read, "You have disgraced your title and the American flag and the principles for which it stands. Apologize for your unpatriotic remark or you'll be barred from the ring."[v]

While the actual question of whether or not Muhammad Ali would be drafted remained unsettled, he went on in February 1967 to successfully defend his title against Terrell. Meanwhile he applied for status with the Selective Service as a Conscientious Objector based upon his Islamic beliefs. Two months later he received "Greetings from the President" ordering him to report for induction. Instead of running as Draft dodgers did, and instead of caving in to pressure both inside and outside his circle, he courageously faced up to future events unsure what to do but determined to face his fate like a man.

Perhaps no man in history has been more vociferously courted by the military, more cajoled to act a particular way be his enemies, or more pushed in a direction he didn't feel was right by his friends than Muhammad Ali. In late April when he reported to the Induction Center in Houston his mother called him long distance from Louisville noting, "Do the right thing. If I were you, I would join the Army. Do you understand me, son?"[vi] Ironically, the young man believed that "doing the right thing" meant doing the very opposite that his mother advised.

Ali completed his written tests and the physical and then lined up with the other inductees, most far younger than his 27-years of age, as names were called out along with branch assignments (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines). "Cassius Clay--Army," the officer shouted. Clay remained in his place. "Cassius Clay! Will you please step forward and be inducted into the Armed Forces of the United States ." The Champ stood silently still.

Clay's determination was met not so much by an angry military as by a determined Army. The matter was bigger than one man refusing to submit to the draft, if the Selective Service failed to induct Muhammad Ali, World Champion boxer, it would be greatly embarrassing. Earlier Ali had been offered "easy outs" such as the opportunity to serve in the National Guard as a "weekend warrior," and was repeatedly promised that as a member of the military he'd never see combat in Vietnam . For Ali it was a matter of principle and he refused to bow to bribery or pressure. Now, in a private room with a few military types, a stenographer, and even agents of the F.B.I., he was advised that he faced criminal charges and a five year prison sentence if he continued to resist. Ali remained firm, prepared to pay the penalty for this act of civil disobedience. He was given one more chance after that serious talk and returned to the room. When his name was called he again refused to step forward.

On that day in Houston the Champ walked virtually alone into the ring against the most powerful adversary of his life, the United States Government. He didn't shirk from what lay ahead of him; he stood his ground and fought his fight. To continue the analogy would require noting that he was "knocked down in the first round" but that he wasn't "out." Charges were filed against him and it took the World Boxing Authority only hours to strip him of his WBA title for a second time (they had previously stripped in as well in 1965). Nearly simultaneously the New York Boxing Commission to took away his license and was followed in kind by all others in the nation. In the media and the public forum Ali was castigated relentlessly and Chicago Sun-Times reporter Bill Gleason noted, "In 1967 and beyond…the white race finally had a cause they could vindicate as just. Here was an avowed Black racist who said he would not fight in the war for reasons of his own. The crowd roared for the blood of Ali."

On that day when Muhammad Ali made the stand his personal convictions demanded, he knew the consequences and stood prepared to pay the price for his dissent. Two months later when his case went to trial, despite the angry mood of much of the country Ali stood by his convictions. It took the jury only 21 minutes of deliberation to find him guilty and the judge imposed the maximum sentence, $10,000 find and 5 years in Federal Prison.

Fortunately Ali never went to prison and remained free pending appeal of his case. It the meantime he lost everything: his title, his livelihood, his standing with many Americans and the respect of most men in his profession. It was a horrible price to pay for what one believed. An appeals court upheld his conviction and the case was referred to the Supreme Court.

By 1970 the American public had also largely turned against the war in Vietnam , and public outrage against the greatest boxer that ever lived abated somewhat. On October 26 Ali returned to the ring in Georgia , the only of the 50 states without a boxing commission, to defeat Jerry Quarry.

In 1971 the U.S. Supreme Court reversed Ali's conviction and on March 8 he returned to New York to fight Joe Frazier in what was billed as "The Fight of the Century." It was the first loss of Ali's Professional Boxing career, decided after 15 rounds with a unanimous decision for Frazier. After a string of victories in 1973 over top-ranked heavyweight contenders Ali forced a rematch. On January 28, 1974 , in Kinshasa , Zaire , Ali reclaimed his title after knocking out Frazier in the 8th round in a bout that was promoted as "The Rumble In The Jungle." British television ranked it as one of the top 100 sporting moments in history. Ten months later Ali knocked out George Forman to defend his title and successfully retained it through three bouts in 1975 before a second rematch against Frazier. He won with a 14th round Technical Knock Out during what became known as "The Thrilla in Manilla." Muhammad Ali had returned to reclaim his title and was proclaimed the Undisputed World Boxing Champion. Everyone now said what he had always said of himself, "Muhammad Ali is the GREATEST!"

During a career that spanned 21 years Muhammad Ali defeated almost every heavyweight boxer of his time, finishing with a record of 56 wins (37 by knockout) and 5 losses. He claimed the World Heavyweight Boxing Championship  three-times, and was named "Fighter of the Year" by Ring Magazine more times than any other fighter. He is an inductee into the International Boxing Hall of Fame and is one of only three boxers to be named "Sportsman of the Year" by Sports Illustrated in history.

In 1973, the draft ended and the U.S. converted  to a military force composed ONLY of volunteers. The Selective Service registration requirement was suspended in April 1975, and was resumed in 1980 by President Carter in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan .

In 1982 Ali learned he was suffering from Parkinson's Disease, a degenerative condition of the central nervous system that attacks its victim's motor skills and speech. With a clear mind and an obvious disability, he continues to fight back with the same courage he demonstrated in the boxing ring and in a court room in Houston .

On November 9, 2005 , Muhammad Ali was invited to the White House--a place where he was unwelcome in the years after earning an Olympic Gold Medal for the United States and where during the Vietnam War he was considered perhaps, Public Enemy Number One. On that day in 2005 President George W. Bush presented him with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, one of the two highest civilian awards our nation bestows on its leading citizens. The citation read simply:

One of the greatest athletes of all time, Muhammad Ali produced some of America 's most lasting sports memories, from winning the Gold Medal at the 1960 Summer Olympics to carrying the Olympic torch at the 1996 Summer Olympics. As the first three-time heavyweight boxing champion of the world, he thrilled, entertained, and inspired us. His deep commitment to equal justice and peace has touched people around the world. The United States honors Muhammad Ali for his lifetime of achievement and for his principled service to mankind.  

That "deep commitment to equal justice and peace" the President spoke of did not come easily…Muhammad Ali paid a great price from 1964 to 1972 but he can stand proudly today to remind us that doing what one perceives as "the right choice" has no value…it is priceless.



* Enlistees had more options but served 3 or more years of active duty. Men who volunteered for the draft could select their preferred branch of service and were only required to serve 2 years on active duty.


[i] Helm, Hunt, "Muhammad Ali-Louisville remembers the shy kid from Central High" The Courier-Journal, Louisville, Kentucky, September 14, 1997

[ii] ibid

[iii] Wikipedia

[iv] Ali, Muhammad, The Greatest, Random House, New York , 1975, p 138.

[v] ibid, p 143.

[vi] ibid, p 159.

 

The Defining Generation: Copyright © 2006 by Doug and Pam Sterner
All Rights Reserved

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover & Introduction
     Preface
Out With the Old
     The Defining Generation

I. - Defining the New
     John Fitzgerald Kennedy
     Roger H.C. Donlon
     Robert Robin Moore
     Barry Sadler
     The Green Beret

II. - Defining Equality
     When Worlds Collide
     Dr. Martin Luther King
     Jimmy Stanford & Vince Yrineo
     Milton Lee Olive, III
     Specialist Lawrence Joel
     Sammy Lee Davis
     Black MOH Recipients - Vietnam War

III. - Defining the Role of the Sexes
     Evolution of a Husband
     Remember the Ladies
     Rosie the Riveter
     Dr. Marguerite Guzman Bouvard
     Linda G. Alvarado
     Karen Irene Offutt
     Women in Military Service
     Lieutenant General Carol Mutter
     The Modern Woman in Combat
IV. - Defining Human Rights
     My Brother's Keeper
     Who is My Brother
     Christopher Dodd & Christopher Shays
     Peace Corps Politicians (Memories)
     Don Bendell
     Sir Edward Artis
     General Colin L. Powell

V. - Defining Entertainment
     Life Imitating Art
     Troubled Waters
     Guess Who's Coming to Dinner
     Brian's Song
     All in the Family
     Adrian Cronauer

VI. - Defining Dissent

     From Berkeley With Love
     The Pen and the Sword
     General David Shoup
     Muhammad Ali
     John Forbes Kerry

VII. - Defining the Future of Politics
     An Act of Congress
     All Politics is....Hereditary?
     Hillary Rodham Clinton
     Condoleezza Rice
     James Henry Webb
The next Section is scheduled for posting on May 20, 2011
VIII. - Defining Memories
     Jaime Pacheco
     The Glory of their Deeds
     Jan Scruggs
     Delbert Schmeling
     Peter C. Lemon

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
The authors extend our thanks to the following who granted personal interviews for this work
: Roger Donlon (MOH), Robin Moore, Don Bendell, Jimmy Stanford, Vince Yrineo, Sammy L. Davis (MOH), Linda Alvarado, Karen Offutt, Lieutenant General Carol Mutter, Sir Edward Artis, General Colin L. Powell, Katharine Houghton, Adrian Cronauer, Jan Scruggs, Delbert Schmeling, and Peter Lemon (MOH).
Our thanks to the staff of the following who either wrote or allowed reprint of their own works for this book: Dr. Marguerite Guzman Bouvard, Don Bendell, Congressman Sam Farr, Congressman Thomas Petri, Congressman Mike Honda, Congressman Jim Walsh, Governor Jim Doyle, and Scott Baron.
Our special thanks also to the staff of the following who provided information and fact-checked the chapters related to their subject: Staff of Senator John Kerry, Staff of (then) Senator Hillary Clinton, Staff of Senator Jim Webb
A SPECIAL THANKS also to Dr. Marguerite Guzman Bouvard for his assistance in writing and editing the entire section on the Role of the Sexes.

 

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